French River Land Company's Website!


French River Land Company's Home Page!

Poetry of Power

FRL History

Hydrolec Disassembly

Hydrolec Rebuild

Key Personnel

Machine Shop

News Page

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Bill Munch


Rebuilding 120" Niles Boring Mill

For Sale


Alternatives Hydro

Anasagunticook Lake Dam Replacement-    C.Fay & W.Fay

Appleton HEP-Jim Lichoulas

Appleton Wisconsin Anniversary

Badger Pond Dam Removal

Senor Bonifettis' sites in Chile

Chittendon Falls

Claytor Dam

Collins Bascule Dam

ESAC WORKS      July 1985

Fiske Mill

1852 Fourneyron

Golden Pond Hydro

Harry Terbush Sites

Hunts Pond

Indian River Rebuild


Jaffery Fire Protection

Konkapot Creek

Lake May Pelton Wheel Removal

Livermore Falls

Martinsville Hydro



Shaker Mill Dam

Silk Knitters- Ron MacLeod

South Village Dam

Sparhawk Mills

Tannery Pond

Tannery Rebuild

Turners Falls Generator Rewind

Valatie Falls

Valley Paper

Wynoochee Hydro


Admitting Air to Turbine Runners Improves Efficiency, S. Logan Kerr

Air Admission to Hydro Runners, David Cox, USCOE, Kerr Dam

A Self-Adjusting Spring Bed Bearing- Henry G. Reist ASME 1646

The Banki Water Turbine Mockmoore and Merryfield

Barrel Stave Bearing Repair

Bearing Currents: Their Origin and Prevention C. T. Pearce

Bishops Method- STABGM Program

Blade Design Kovalev

Blade Pitting- Boving LTD 1930

Cavitation- Accelerated Research, Allis Chalmers Research

Cavitation & Vibration of a Draft Tube

Cavitation- Prevention & Reduction, Allis Chalmers Research

Causes & Effects of Cavitation in Hydraulic Turbines

Chain Turbine by: Nguyen Minh Duy

Chain Turbine Mechanics- Discussions with Duy

Characteristics of Modern Hydraulic Turbines-Chester Larner

Comparative Tests On Experimental Draft Tubes- C M Allen & I A Winter  1923

Design of an Overshot Waterwheel

(by Carl Weidner)

Design of Pelton Buckets

Design of Small Water Turbines for Farm and Small Communities

Design of the runner of a Kaplan turbine for small hydroelectric power plants: Timo Flaspöhler

Draft Tube Design

Draft Tubes of Hydro-Electric Stations by M. F. Gubin

Draft Tube Tests

Ejection into Tailraces of Hydropower Plants: S. M. Slisskii

Erection & Alignment of Vertical Waterwheel Generator Units-R.O. Standing

Evolution of Hydraulic Prime Movers-Byron McCoy

Fall Increaser- Henry Ford

Fall Increaser Herschel Venturi Tube

Fall Increaser Moody Ejector Turbine

Fall Increaser Hydraulic Jump Apron

Flashboard Pins

Gatecase Design- Kovalev

Generator Shaft Design Calculation- Olav Hodtvedt

Governor Theory for the Plant Operator

Graphics of Water Wheels- William Fox

Hydraulic Motors- M. Bresse & F. A. Mahan 1869

Hydraulic Power Transmission by Compressed Air

Hydraulic Rams their Principals and Construction by J. Wright Clarke

Hydraulic Turbine and Governor Field Erection Information

Hydraulic Turbines- Robert Long Daugherty

Hydraulic Turbines by Arnold Pfau

Hydraulic Turbines Gelpke & Van Cleve

Hydrokinetic Energy in Massachusetts, William D. B. Fay

Hydrostatic Beam Analysis


Impulse Turbines  by Ely Hutchinson

Interference fitting a large runner shaft

Kaplan Blade Design NACA Air Foil- Report No. 460

Kaplan Blade Design NACA Air Foil- Report No. 628

Kaplan Design- Kovalev

Kaplan Design Marko Kogovsek.xls

A Laboratory Study to Improve the Efficiency of Crossflow Turbines- N. Aziz & V. Desai

Loading Vertical Thrust Bearings R. C. Johnson

Low Head Hydroplants, Emil Mosonyi

Meggering Generators

Meggering      Earth Resistance

Motors as Generators for Microhydro, Nigel Smith

Miroslav Nechleba

Natick Dam Powerhouse Calcs

Operation & Maintenance of Hydro-Generators

Out Gassing of Cross Flow Turbines

Parallel Operation of Turbines Analysis

Pelton Design- Daugherty

Pole Key Extraction

Pouring a babbitt bearing

Powerhouse Design- Miniwatt Hydro

Powerhouse Design- Natick Dam

Power Plant Inspection


Rake-Newport News

Rack Design-Chicopee-Olav Hotvedt

Rack Design- PHI- Bill Fay

Rack Design-PHI-Brian French

Rack Design-PHI-Ken Smith

Rack Design-ASCE

Rack Design- Hydraulic Institue of Munich

Rack Design-Flow Induced Vibrations

Rigging a large generator

Selecting Hydraulic Reaction Turbines BUREC

Shafts- Kovalev

Shaft Couplings

Snows Improved Water Wheel Governor

Standard for Hydraulic Turbine and Generator Shaft Couplings and Shaft Runout Tolerances

Stoplog Design Calculation

Stoplog Structure Design Calculation

Stress Analysis of Hydraulic Turbine Parts, BUREC- F.O. Ruud

Some Fluid Flow Characteristics of a Cross Flow Type Hydraulic Turbine- Durgin & Fay

Technology of Heavy Electric Machine Building HydroGenerators

Tenth Census of the US, 1880, Water Power of the US, Part I- Professor Trowbridge

Tenth Census of the US, 1880, Water Power of the US, Part II- Professor Trowbridge

Tests on a Kaplan Hydraulic Turbine

Tests Of A Rife Ram

Theoretical Conditions Related to an Open Channel Flow Linear Turbine- Ishida & Service

Theory of Turbines- De Volson Wood

Tidal Energy for Hydroelectric Power Plants by L. B. Bernshtein

Treatise relative to the Testing of Water-Wheels and Machinery, James Emerson 1879

Trash Rack Differential Equations 2L/3

Trashrack Differential Equations General Solution f(x)

Turbine Water-Wheel Tests- Robert Horton

Turgo, A High Speed Impulse Turbine- Paul Wilson

Vortices at Intakes

Water Hammer and Surge Tanks G. V. Aronovich

Water Hammer-Lorenzo Allievi-Text

Water Hammer-Lorenzo Allievi-Figures

Water Hammer-ASME Symposium 1933

Water Hammer _ Norman Gibson

Water Hammer-E.B.Strowger

Waterpower Engineering-Daniel Webster Mead

Water Turbines Contributions to Their Study, Computation and Design-S.J. Zowski

Water Wheel Design- Ken Smith



White Hydraucone Regainer

Wooden Penstocks


ASEA- Bearings for Large Vertical Hydro-Electric Machines

Bradway Turbine  (progressive gate)

C.P.Bradway Turbine

Brook Waterwheel

Charmilles Turbines

Christiana Machine (register gate)

Dayton Globe

Electric Machinery Company (EM)

English Pelton


Essex Turbines

GE WW Vert Gen

GE Springbed Brg

General Electric- Standard Specifications for Hydro Thrust Bearings and Runners

General Electric-Thrust Bearings as used in Large General Electric Hydraulic Turbine-driven Generators- GEA 2251E

GEH 527C

Gilkes Turbines


Head Gate Hoists- S. Morgan Smith

Holyoke Hercules

Hunt Cat 29 A&B

Hunt cylinder

J & W Jolly       (cylinder gate)

Kingsbury  Brg

Leffel Bulletin 38

Leffel Bulletin 54

Leffel Hoppes Unit

Leffel Laboratory Unit

Leffel Miscellaneous

Kingsbury Catalog C-1

Lombard Direct-Connected Oil Pressure Governors Bulletin N0. 113 October 1st, 1912

Lombard Governor

Lombard Governor Company Type T Instruction Book

Lombard Governors for Waterwheels and Steam Engines-1902

Lombard Water Wheel Governors Catalouge 26

Michell Bearings

Nohab- Water Turbines

Pelton Wheel (1909)

Pelton Wheel (1925)

Rife Hydraulic Engine

Ridgway Perfection Water-Wheel

Rodney Hunt

Samson PamK

Smith Bulletin 110

Smith Power Tables

Smith Kaplan

Smith Power

Smith Pelton

Smith Develop

Smith Turbines: Bulletin 105

Swain Turbine

Trump Hydraulic Turbines

Trump Turbines

Tyler Turbine

Vertical Shaft Water Wheel Driven Generators- General Electric

Wellman Seaver Morgan

Westinghouse Small Vertical Waterwheel-Driven A-C Generators, July 1944

Westinghouse WW Generators

Woodward Governor



Smith Alternative Energy:



Small Turbine Manufacturers Websites:




    The ancestor of the modern, radial flow, turbine was invented by two French Engineers, Claude Burdin (1790-1873) a professor at the Ecole des Mines at Saint Etienne and his student, Benoit Fourneyron (1802-1867). In 1833, the Societe de Encouragement pour le Industrie National, offered a prize to any person producing a large scale, commercial hydraulic turbine. Fourneyron won the prize, for his turbine design. The turbine was licensed to others to manufacture. In 1844, Uriah A, Boyden of Chicopee, Massachusetts modified and patented improvements to the design. In 1849, he began to manufacture his turbine at the Ames Manufacturing Company on the Chicopee River.

    The earliest Boyden, Fourneyrons were installed in Lawrence, Lowell and Holyoke, Massachusetts. These are the machines that James Emerson refers to as the "Great White Elephants of the Lowell Corporation".

    I had heard of these types of machines for years and did not think any existed. We were doing routine maintenance on the Open Square's, Leffel Z machines during the annual drawdown in Holyoke. I squeezed behind the number four machine pressure case and found one of the original Boyden Fourneyron machines in a dungeon. It is interesting that ten of these machines were installed. They were decommissioned in 1888 when Holyoke Hercules, cylinder gate machines were installed in two of the pits that had two of the Boyden machines. Two more were removed in 1927 when the Leffel Z machines were installed. The remaining six machines stayed tucked under the floor boards. To the best of my knowledge, these are the only remaining Fourneyron turbines left in the U.S.



"UPDATE-II": Please see the e-mail sent to me by Mr. Tom Livoti of Cohoes, N.Y. inserted below my photographs. (October 24, 2006)"

Boyden, Fourneyron Turbine. Note outward radial flow runner at bottom (buckets just visible). The four bar linkage actuates a cylinder gate that is located between the bottom of the pressure case and the inside of the runner. The water sprays out radially and is directed into the tailrace by a circular, brick wall.

Boyden, Fourneyron runner. Note the runner consists of a large disc attached to the bottom of the turbine shaft. The blades are attached to the edge of the disc similar to a vertical cross flow runner. The rectangular bronze pieces are the blades. The vertical control rods are attached to a cylinder gate that is located between the inside of the runner and the pressure case. As the rods are raised, the cylinder is lifted and the high pressure water is directed radially through the blades.

A view of a second machine's runner.

A view of the curved, brick, discharge wall that directs the flow into the tailrace.

Another machine with a good view of the radial outflow, external runner.

Here, my business partner, Ken Smith, is inspecting the 33 inch, Leffel "Z", the reason we were at Open Square. In 1993, my other partner, Davis Hobbs and I installed new wicket gates cast from a zinc alloy, ZA 12. 12 years later, there is no corrosion and no fouling. These gates look like we installed them yesterday.


Between 1871 and 1873 these two Boyden Turbines were installed at the Harmony Mill Number 3 in Cohoes, New York.  Harmony Mills was the largest They were used to power the mills machinery via belts.  These two turbines are installed in the south end of the mill building.  The water was supplied from a dam on the Mohawk River to a power canal that fed the water in from the west side of the building.  The water was then channeled to other mills where it drove an additional three turbines.  The water flowed back into the Mohawk River after powering the turbines.

These turbines produced 800 HP each based on a 102 inch diameter runner.  These photos show the only remaining Boyden Turbines in Cohoes, New York.  These photos are from October 19, 2006.
Mill Number 3 has been restored to Loft Apartments.
Tom Livoti